It is evident the designers focused upon the air temperatures because of the tradition that air temperature had been from the beginning been accepted as a proxy for the earth’s surface temperature in the S-B radiation law. Say these Physicists, since Carbon Dioxide absorbs infrared and be it said emits it, therefore it follows that these molecules high up in the atmosphere get hot, stay hot and prevent heat ebbing away. Carbon is a chemical element, like hydrogen, oxygen, lead or any of the others in the periodic table. All the trash that is trumpeted about emissions of Carbon Dioxide is just that – trash! It is nonmetallic and tetravalent—making four electrons available to form covalent chemical bonds. I shall tell you. And I believe your essay deserves more comments than they have received. It is totally absurd. Although widely distributed in nature, carbon is not particularly plentiful—it makes up only about 0.025 percent of Earth’s crust—yet it forms more compounds than all the other elements combined. Ed. You may have heard that carbon is the element of life. So why do the Warmists not blame Water Vapour? Carbon, the sixth most abundant element in the universe, has been known since ancient times. So there is no doubt about it at all. Because the water vapor content is so variable, the percentages of the other gases are customarily given for “dry air” — no water vapor content. Yes, it is a fact. But a bigger cooling effect during the day. One of the most important chemical elements is carbon. Chemical Properties: The melting point of Diamond is roughly at around 3,700°C and hits boiling point at 4,200°C. Carbon is an element of the Periodic Table. Every carbon atom is covalently bonded at the four corners of the tetrahedron to four other carbon atoms. Coral and the shells of oysters and clams are primarily calcium carbonate. Yes, Ar @ ~ .934%. Carbon is a really cool element. Which radiation balance should occur locally just as well as globally?. You wrote: “When Feynman (and others) talk about induced or stimulated emission, they are talking about phenomena such as fluorescence, which are not relevant here.” Long ago Newton wrote (The Principia as translation by Motte): “Therefore to the same natural effects we must, as far as possible, assign the same causes. When my essays are posted there are usually 20 fewer comments, if there are any, than there are now. Natural deposits are worked by crushing, by gravity and flotation separations, and by removal of diamonds by their adherence to a layer of grease on a suitable table. In this context I believe we need to consider the follow from The Feynman Lectures of Physics (pp 42-9). ), might be useful to confirm this assertion. So if the water vapor content is 4%, as can happen in the humid tropics, nitrogen is reduced to about 75%, and oxygen to about 20%. The earth’s atmosphere is ABUNDANT with Water Vapor, ~100x greater in quantity than C02 yet by design, obfuscation, the Climatitstas BURY THAT FACT. Graphite is simply a form of solid carbon. Yet, John O’Sullivan has posted two essay’s in which I reviewed the observed influence of cloud upon the incident solar radiation and air temperatures and surface temperatures as measured at two different NOAA USCRN project sites and these postings (https://principia-scientific.com/record-temperature-result-of-cloud-revised-updated/) and (https://principia-scientific.com/the-corvallis-or-uscrn-site-a-natural-laboratory/) and, as yet, no has made a comment relative to them, not even you. Before the discovery in 1779 that graphite when burned in air forms carbon dioxide, graphite was confused with both the metal lead and a superficially similar substance, the mineral molybdenite. Elemental carbon exists in several forms, each of which has its own physical characteristics. But is Atlanta’s atmosphere’s water vapor significantly greater than that of Phoenix as it implied on the basis of the yearly average relative humidity data ? A carbon atom is capable of combining with up to four other atoms (tetravalent), including other carbon atoms; it is this property that allows so many compounds to be formed. It is a nonmetal, meaning that it is not a metal.. Carbon has atomic mass 12 and atomic number 6. It … Their reasoning is puerile. Liquid water is more than 1000 times as dense as the atmosphere. The fact that the molecules of the entire Greenhouse Gases are just one in one hundred, and that at altitude they are farther and farther apart, with ‘nothing’ in between the molecules, means that the whole idea of a Greenhouse block suspended high up in the Troposphere is just a non-starter. Far from being a pollutant, this gas is a source of life, without which we, and all the animal kingdom, would have been decimated long ago. Be on the lookout for your Britannica newsletter to get trusted stories delivered right to your inbox. Updates? Yet another form, called amorphous carbon, has no crystalline structure. On a weight basis, carbon is 19th in order of elemental abundance in Earth’s crust, and there are estimated to be 3.5 times as many carbon atoms as silicon atoms in the universe. Carbon is the sixth element in the periodic table. It is true that Nitrogen and Oxygen, which together comprise 99{154653b9ea5f83bbbf00f55de12e21cba2da5b4b158a426ee0e27ae0c1b44117} of the atmosphere, are transparent to infrared radiation, whereas the Greenhouse gases are opaque, so a bizarre and totally illogical conclusion is reached that Greenhouse gases cause warming. Carbon is the chemical element in the periodic table that has the symbol C and atomic number 6. I came to my computer this morning after pondering the fact that the designers of the USCRN natural laboratories placed three identical air temperature measuring instruments at the vertexes of an equilateral triangle to get a better estimate of the ‘actual’ air temperature. Furthermore, through some obscure references to the work of Svante Arrhenius, some people have been persuaded that the Earth is getting hotter and hotter, owing to the presence of Carbon Dioxide in the Atmosphere, even though it is only a trace gas at 0.04{154653b9ea5f83bbbf00f55de12e21cba2da5b4b158a426ee0e27ae0c1b44117} of the whole. Don't worry about the last one really. Funny! Agreed? One mistake was that the average surface temperature is not the average air temperature. While is did proofread this comment and corrected several mistakes I missed that ‘briefs’ in the first sentence should have been ‘beliefs’. And I am aware there are some skeptics who question that it is not possible to measure the temperature of natural surfaces. It is the fourth most abundant element in the universe, and it plays a crucial role in the health and stability of the planet through the carbon cycle. In microcrystalline and nearly amorphous form, it is used as a black pigment, as an adsorbent, as a fuel, as a filler for rubber, and, mixed with clay, as the “lead” of pencils. It is both scientific and logical. Carbon is one of the few elements known since antiquity. November 25/10 18/5 You believe I do not know that scattering is not absorption? Because it is stable, it can be found both by itself and in many naturally occurring compounds. The volatile by-products are recovered and used separately. The distance between carbon atoms along the bond is 1.54 × â€¦ The detailed knowledge from these measurements is embedded in the MODTRAN and HITRAN databases, which present in great detail how much IR is absorbed at different wavelengths under different atmospheric conditions. Only gullible simpletons can believe that the temperature of the Planet Earth is controlled by a few molecules of Carbon Dioxide – just 0.04{154653b9ea5f83bbbf00f55de12e21cba2da5b4b158a426ee0e27ae0c1b44117} – in the atmosphere, when we have a raging Sun only some 90 million miles away that is 3,600 times as big as Planet Earth. So each drop adds 10ppm of a substance that is absorptive of some wavelengths of visible light. A few years ago in the USA some bright sparks in the EPA had a vote as to whether Carbon Dioxide should be called a pollutant, and such was the political atmosphere at the time that the vote went 3:2 in favour of calling this noble Gas a pollutant. June 40/24 30/18 I am aware that relative humidity is not the same as humidity (details of which I have not found). They even form a barrier called the Greenhouse Effect. Carbon is a very abundant element. Each drop is about 50 microliters, of which about 10 microliters is colorant. The procedure involved the simultaneous use of extremely high pressure and temperature with iron as a solvent or catalyst. Please select which sections you would like to print: Corrections? In 1787, four French chemists wrote a book outlining a method for naming chemical substances. With air about 1/1000 the density of water, a few ppm of absorptive molecules, such as H2O and CO2, in air provide significant attenuation in just a few tens of meters. Plants obtain carbon from the atmosphere through the process of photosynthesis. If the radiative greenhouse effect of back radiation is correct the higher water vapour levels (and cloud) at Atlanta should cause that city to be warmer than Phoenix. temperature would be 33C less if not for the greenhouse gases of the atmosphere.. And based upon the lack of comments relative to the two posting to which I have directed attention, who can claim to have studied the data which was not available to Arrhenius and needed by him to properly do his radiation balance calculation. But yeah, graphite is simply a whole bunch of carbons bound together. April 30/15 23/9 Back Radiation Greenhouse Effect of 33 Kelvin Possible? It is not an opinion. Yes, it is a fact. First you wrote: “dry desert with low levels of humidity” and then you reported relative humidity data. Yet this false doctrine has even been taught in schools and young kids indoctrinated with the idea that Carbon Dioxide is a pollutant. For example, all carbon atoms contain 6 protons in their atomic nucleus; so the atomic number of carbon is 6. PRINCIPIA SCIENTIFIC INTERNATIONAL is legally registered in the UK as a company incorporated for charitable purposes. Carbon has a valency of four, … Head Office: 27 Old Gloucester Street, London WC1N 3AX. For example, air at 30C and 80% relative humidity (typical for Atlanta in the summer) has a moist enthalpy of 85.8 kJ/kg (relative to dry air at 0C). Take 1 liter of water in a glass container. Hi James, You have just made my point. For the last two decades we have all been bombarded by voices calling for a Carbon Free environment. So, I have no idea that anyone has actually read about the observed facts that are reviewed. I’m not sure the same can be said about the edge of the earth’s atmosphere, with the “empty universe” on one side, all in a low density medium. Could someone explain the math???? The US Air Force has spent many millions of dollars over decades measuring the IR absorption/transmission in the atmosphere under a wide variety of conditions because this knowledge is critical to the success of its heat-seeking missiles, which track IR emissions from planes and the like. In 1961 the isotope carbon-12 was selected to replace oxygen as the standard relative to which the atomic weights of all the other elements are measured. Biologically, carbon holds a significant position and is part of all living systems. It exists in … A few ppm of absorptive molecules in water provide significant attenuation in just a few tens of millimeters. Is that a fact? Hence, the maximum possible downwelling IR at Atlanta is limited by its surface’s lower temperatures even if the water vapor content of its atmosphere might be greater. Anthony wrote an excellent essay and for whatever reasons, a fair number of different people have contributed comments. The answer is simple – you have it in one. And almost all of the substances have some important uses in human life. Although widely distributed in nature, carbon is not particularly plentiful—it makes up only about 0.025 percent of Earth’s crust—yet it forms more compounds than all the other elements combined. Carbon is made up of just one type of atom. The signal (message) in the radiation can be jammed, but not the radiation itself. An abundant nonmetallic, tetravalent element, carbon has several allotropic forms: diamonds (hardest known mineral). Yes, but I believe that’s mostly in the case of a closed system with boundaries (eg a rod, or a tube full of gas or liquid). However, the climate of Phoenix is described as dry desert with low levels of humidity (water vapour) while Atlanta is described as humid, sub-tropical. In addition to its uses in making inks and paints, carbon black is added to the rubber used in tires to improve its wearing qualities. They dare not sue, because to do…, Does this come as any surprise? Anybody, just anybody these days can look it up in an instant on a smartphone, on a computer. Two of its well-defined forms, diamond and graphite, are crystalline in structure, but they differ in physical properties because the arrangements of the atoms in their structures are dissimilar. Encyclopaedia Britannica's editors oversee subject areas in which they have extensive knowledge, whether from years of experience gained by working on that content or via study for an advanced degree.... Gunsmoke was a popular television program made up of actors, but do you know what gunpowder is made of? Carbon (from Latin: carbo "coal") is a chemical element with the symbol C and atomic number 6. “Thus, Einstein assumed that there are three processes: an absorption proportional to the intensity of light, an emission proportional to the intensity of light, called induced emission or sometimes stimulated emission, and a spontaneous emission independent of light.” Hence, I understand that the straight line IR radiation that is absorbed (or scattered by ‘cloud’ droplets) is given a ‘new’ direction by a scattering phenomenon or by the induced emission which follows the absorption which is proportional to the intensity of this straight line being emitted from a small, hot, surface (of small volume of a very hot gas whose water vapor composition is far greater than that of the surrounding atmosphere). Wikipedia says 7.8B as of May 2018, which sounds a bit more realistic. January 20/7 12/0 Carbon products are obtained by heating coal (to give coke), natural gas (to give blacks), or carbonaceous material of vegetable or animal origin, such as wood or bone (to give charcoal), at elevated temperatures in the presence of insufficient oxygen to allow combustion. Elemental carbon is an inert substance, which is insoluble in water, diluted acids and bases, as well as organic solvents. Carbon stars are stars whose atmosphere has more carbon than oxygen. PRINCIPIA SCIENTIFIC INTERNATIONAL, legally registered in the UK as a company incorporated for charitable purposes. About 30% of all industrial diam… Updated September 07, 2018 Carbon is the element with atomic number 6 on the periodic table with symbol C. This nonmetallic element is the key to the chemistry of living organisms, primarily due to its tetravalent state, which allows it to form four covalent chemical bonds with other atoms. This is indeed curious, since this gas is used to make Dry Ice; it is used in Fire Extinguishers and also in Nurseries to speed up the growth of tomatoes, for example. Humidity is not the same as relative humidity. You have three major types of carbons: graphite, diamond, and the fullerenes. Close to finishing a piece that disputes Chaos in the I.P.C.C definiton of climate, the improper mechanical use of Greenhouse and Water Vapor vs C02. Carbon is most commonly obtained from coal deposits, although it usually must be processed into a form suitable for commercial use. From the Latin word carbo:charcoal. Only hydrogen, helium, oxygen, neon, and nitrogen are atomically more abundant in the cosmos than carbon. Graphite is used as a lubricant. For example, a hydrogen atom has 1 proton, while a carbon atom has 6 protons. Bone black, or animal charcoal, can adsorb gases and colouring matter from many other materials. It appears in climate-warming debates, but it doesn’t seem to be really proven by science. It belongs to group 14 of the periodic table. Isolated finds around the world in regions where no sources are indicated have not been uncommon. Carbon is unique among the elements in the vast number and variety of compounds it can form. Modern carbon chemistry dates from the development of coals, petroleum, and natural gas as fuels and from the elucidation of synthetic organic chemistry, both substantially developed since the 1800s. Then why would any CO2 that absorbs IR; which is then thermalized; and re-radiated at other wavelengths; not be “jammed” by the stronger outgoing IR from earth? Principia Scientific International (PSI) is a not-for-profit community interest association. Carbon in the form of coal is an important fuel They are two separate processes. I just read both of your articles. With hydrogen, oxygen, nitrogen, and other elements, it forms a very large number of compounds, carbon atom often being linked to carbon atom. Carbon atoms are arranged in a regular pattern, meaning carbon is solid at room temperature. A chemical element is a substance that cannot be further broken down by any chemical reaction. Carbon in the form of microscopic diamonds is found in some meteorites. Carbon makes up only about 0.025 percent of Earth's crust. Carbon is characterized as the 4th most abundant element in the universe and the 15thmost abundant element in the Earth’s crust. Since there is also a well-known Carbon Cycle, where we know that green plants feed on Carbon Dioxide and produce Oxygen as a by-product for all mankind to breathe, it must surely be the most ridiculous error ever to have been perpetrated. Located between boron (B) and nitrogen (N), it is a very stable element. Diamond and graphite occur naturally on Earth, and they also can be produced synthetically; they are chemically inert but do combine with oxygen at high temperatures, just as amorphous carbon does. It is highly reactive and hence forms many different substances. But, Water Vapor at a disperson of 0-4% of the Atmosphere is ALSO TERMED AS A GREENHOUSE GAS. There has been a strange madness with only comparing C02 to temperature in arguments. It is present as both as pure elemental carbon and also as complex with other elements. when there are number it most likely is a compound. In diamond, each carbon atom bonds to four others in a dense network that makes the material the hardest substance known. Carbon is a naturally abundant nonmetallic element which forms the basis of most living organisms. Carbon is a chemical element with symbol C with atomic number 6 and atomic mass 12. Graphite occurs naturally in many areas, the deposits of major importance being in China, India, Brazil, Turkey, Mexico, Canada, Russia, and Madagascar. Liberal politicians and thousands of camp followers demand that we should be Carbon free. When iron is alloyed with carbon, hard steel is formed. Atomic number, 6; atomic weight, 12.011. Is Sustainable Energy Even Possible Globally? The primary source of diamonds is a soft bluish peridotic rock called kimberlite (after the famous deposit at Kimberley, South Africa), found in volcanic structures called pipes, but many diamonds occur in alluvial deposits presumably resulting from the weathering of primary sources. Synthetic diamonds are now manufactured in several countries and are being used increasingly in place of natural materials as industrial abrasives. By the way, the 1% trace gas component is overwhelmingly argon, which is completely transparent to IR. Air at 40C and 20% relative humidity (typical for Phoenix in the summer) has a moist enthalpy of 64.5 kJ/kg. However, carbon compounds (i.e., carbonates of magnesium and calcium) form common minerals (e.g., magnesite, dolomite, marble, or limestone). There is a great need for a detail conversation about these temperature measurements; which right or wrong are facts reported by instruments and therefore not opinions. Until 1955 all diamonds were obtained from natural deposits, most significant in southern Africa but occurring also in Brazil, Venezuela, Guyana, and Siberia. Varying the number of electrons in an atom of an element produces ions. Carbon is unique among the elements in the vast number and variety of compounds it can form. – 9B population seems high. Most consumers are familiar with the element, along with numerous forms in which it ap… Omissions? Carbon is unique among the elements in its ability to form strongly bonded chains, sealed off by hydrogen atoms. Carbon as an element was discovered by the first person to handle charcoal from fire. The single known source in the United States, in Arkansas, has no commercial importance; nor is India, once a source of fine diamonds, a significant present-day supplier. I think that accurate measurements (if possible at all! Their heat-seeking missiles work VERY well. Is that a fact? However, another fact is that the designers of the USCRN natural laboratories also boldly placed it an instrument claimed to be capable of measuring surface temperatures. Carbon is the element. These hydrocarbons, extracted naturally as fossil fuels … The second fundamental mistake was that he reduced the average incident solar radiation upon the earth’s surface by the measured albedo which had been observed at that time and he could see, as we do, that one of these albedo factors was cloud. When we say carbon is an element, there is no reference to the number of individual particles of carbon. Your answer is correct Ed, but that is a LABORATORY numer, not the real world. Yet it is rather i…, Copernicus Meets the Greenhouse Effect (PDF), Absence Of A Measurable Greenhouse Effect, Greenhouse Effect Theory Within the UN IPCC, Why CO2 Has Nothing To Do With Temperature, The Planck Blackbody Equation and Atmospheric Radiative Transfer, Finite Element Model for Atmospheric IR-Absorption, One-way heat flow formulation with Planck absorption and re-emission, Alternative Theory To Man-Made CO2’s Influence On Climate, Keynesian Economics’ Relationship To Economic Prolems. Two fullerene structures: an elongated carbon nanotube and a spherical buckminsterfullerene, or “buckyball.”. The following products result: (1) diamond proper—distorted cubic crystalline gem-quality stones varying from colourless to red, pink, blue, green, or yellow; (2) bort—minute dark crystals of abrasive but not gem quality; (3) ballas—randomly oriented crystals of abrasive quality; (4) macles—triangular pillow-shaped crystals that are industrially useful; and (5) carbonado—mixed diamond–graphite crystallites containing other impurities. It is a direct affront to Great Nature – it is like spitting in the face of God the Creator. Had these Warmists concentrated on Water Vapour then indeed they might have had a case, since it is clearly observable that in a hot dry climate there is an abrupt decline in temperature when the sun goes down, whereas in a muggy damp atmosphere the temperature declines slowly. The successful laboratory conversion of graphite to diamond was made in 1955. The name they used, carbone, is based on the earlier Latin term for charcoal, charbon. The two most familiar forms of carbon—diamond and graphite—differ greatly because of the arrangement of their atoms. This cycle is extremely complex, and it illustrates the interconnection between organisms on Earth. I’m afraid you neglected the thermodynamic implications of humidity in your arguments. Here are two questions. We have been threatened lest we use up our Carbon Footprint. For you direct a reader’s attention to important facts. Subsequently, chromium, manganese, cobalt, nickel, and tantalum were substituted for iron. Carbon (C), nonmetallic chemical element in Group 14 (IVa) of the periodic table. The absorption is proportional to the intensity of incoming light, and as he notes, the spontaneous emission is NOT. It was later found to occur naturally in tiny amounts on Earth and in meteorites. At high temperatures carbon binds with oxygen to form carbon monoxide (CO) or dioxide (CO2). An observed fact is the downwelling IR is seldom ever greater than the upwelling radiation from the surface. This means carbon is an element. The atomic number of an element is equal to the number of protons in each atom, and defines the element. I should have relied on the climate description for each city. This is because it is the main element in all living things, and because it can make so many different compounds. March 25/11 19/6 With hot oxidizing agents [Potassium nitrate (KNO­3) and Nitric acid (HNO3)], Metilic acid C6(CO2H)6 is obtained. Is that a scientific conclusion? Now add food coloring a drop at a time. Lessons From A Chicken Wire Stack On Moon, Global Cooling: Beware the Snowman Cometh. Am I crazy or are they? Learn more about the building blocks of substances in this materials and components quiz. Telephone: Calls from within the UK: 020 7419 5027. International dialling: (44) 20 7419 5027. July 41/28 32/21 This has been the battle cry of all those acolytes of the Arch Priest and one-time Vice President of the United States, Al Gore. Carbon, an element of prehistoric discovery, is very widely distributed in nature. The most important radioisotope is 14 C, with a half-life of 5.6 × 10 3 years. Thansk you for your work on the possible effect of clouds on surface temperatures at USCRN sites. Coke and charcoal are nearly pure carbon.) There is little difference in latitude and altutude between the two cities. Atlanta latitude 33.7: altitude 1050 feet Since there are now some nine billion humans living on this Planet Earth and since they are exhaling Carbon Dioxide at the rate of circa 20 breaths a minute, to call this exhalation a pollutant is not just a misnomer but also a crime against humanity itself. Carbon is a long-studied element, but that doesn't mean there isn't more to discover. If I am trying to communicate with you in the dark with a flashlight using Morse code, a bank of bright flashing lights behind me would make it difficult for you to decipher my message (signal). Q-carbon is also synthetic, but scientists have speculated that it could form within the hot environments of some planetary cores. This surely must have been one of the most colossal mistakes ever perpetrated on the human race. A fourth form, called Q-carbon, is crystalline and magnetic. Thanks Jerry for your comments. https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/World_population It is understood that the max. Atomic form of carbon is very short lived and readily stabilizes in multi-atomic configurations. December 20/7 13/2. Atlanta is partly cloudy year round. Carbon was officially classified as an element near the end of the eighteenth century. Physics ( pp 42-9 ) is simple – you have suggestions to improve this article ( requires ). 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