The Global Historical Climatology Network version 3.3.0 dataset was obtained from the NOAA National Climatic Data Center. The adjustments made in the ACORN-SAT dataset through the homogenisation process are for the specific purpose of analysing temperature trends. There are two reasons why national analyses for temperature currently date back to 1910, which relate to the quality and availability of temperature data prior to this time. Brunet, M., Asin, J., Sigro, J., Bañon, M., Garcia, F., Aguilar, E., Palenzuela, J.E., Peterson, T.P. The main reason for this is changes over time in the way sea surface temperature is measured. temperature. More than 206 heat records have been broken in just 90 days in Australia. Because the satellite data measure an average temperature through a depth of several kilometres in the atmosphere, they would be expected to compare better with upper-air measurements taken using weather balloons and radiosondes than they would with measurements at the surface. Where absolute temperature values (rather than anomalies) are quoted as an area average for Australia or a region, this is done by first calculating the anomaly as above, and then adding that to a fixed estimate of the area average for the standard 1961–1990 reference period. The limited ability of sparse networks to capture spatial variability and the resultant larger uncertainty in large-area averages is inherent in any gridding calculation. Datasets from the United States National Aeronautics and Space Administration Goddard Institute for Space Studies are available in two analysis scales (250 km and 1200 km; land only versions GISSLO and GISSLOlong, and blended versions GISS and GISSlong), courtesy of the US National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration Earth System Research Laboratory's Physical Sciences Division. What is the hottest day in Australian history? and Jones, P.D. This is reflected, for example, in the increasing uncertainty going back in time in the Australian region means (see Question 9). There's a good chance the new location may be slightly warmer or colder than the previous. and Jones, P.D. In the case of Merredin, this is likely due to the development of a nearby carpark. It ranked the Bureau's procedures and data analysis as amongst the best in the world. This includes the gradual replacement of manual observers with automated equipment. The Bureau employs staff with these skills and is the most suitable institution to undertake the necessary analyses. Surface temperatures and temperatures in the lower atmosphere are often similar—but they are not the same—and can at times differ significantly. The January 1896 heatwave in inland New South Wales is often cited as an indication of a very warm pre-federation period. (see Orbost adjustment example published in 2014 using version 1 data). The vast majority of these observations have been subsequently digitised (entered into an electronic database) at the monthly timescale. Earlier observations were taken officially by the colonial governments, as well as by amateur weather watchers. Australia's mean surface air temperature has increased by more than 1.4°C since 1910. In this way, it is a necessary process, that compliments the use of unadjusted data. Record highs; January 2, 1960: SA's (and Australia's) highest temp on record of 50.7 is set at Oodnadatta. This is particularly true over Australia during El Niño events or particularly dry and hot periods, such as the 2012–13 summer. Assessment of urban versus rural in situ surface temperatures in the contiguous United States: no difference found. The Bureau reports temperatures back to the late 19th century for those sites with long histories and good data. These elements create very large uncertainties when calculating national temperatures before 1910, and preclude the construction of nation-wide temperature (gridded over the Australian continent) on which the Bureau’s annual temperature series is based. See Daily Extremes for more information about daily rainfall and temperature records for each month and season. This situation is now rare for ACORN-SAT stations but was common up until the 1990s. SYDNEY: Parts of Australia, including Sydney, sweltered through the hottest November night on record with temperatures likely to stay high on Sunday (Nov 29), prompting authorities to … The Bureau of Meteorology has attempted to place as much information and data on these webpages to allow a proficient end-user to effectively reproduce a homogenization analysis of the raw or base temperature data. These historical accounts were often not catalogued or held as searchable records. These adjustments result in the observed trends at Kerang being more consistent with other sites in the region. The maximum temperatures stayed higher than 30 °C (86 °F) for another six days, including two more 40-degree-plus days (6 and 7 February) until dropping back to 24.8 °C (77 °F) on 8 February 2009. Sydney's record temperature was recorded at Observatory Hill in the Central Business District. This differs from ACORN-SAT, which constructs a continent-wide daily temperature record for Australia. The Australian Climate Observations Reference Network – Surface Air Temperature (ACORN-SAT) is the dataset used by the Bureau of Meteorology to monitor long-term temperature trends in Australia. As the population has grown and expanded into remote parts of the continent, so too has the Bureau’s station network. The standardisation of instruments in many parts of the country had occurred by 1910, two years after the Bureau was formed. min & mean temperature, Decadal & multi-decadal Calculating the average temperature anomaly with this technique has the effect of weighting each location value according to how large its 'footprint' is. 2010. The number of weather stations recording very warm night-time temperatures and the frequency with which these occur has increased since the mid-1970s. Occasionally it is necessary to assess the homogeneity of data without the use of reference stations, but using such an approach means that detection and adjustment take place with a much higher level of uncertainty. The Forum concluded in 2017. ACORN-SAT was first published in 2011. As part of their assessment of the HadCRUT4 dataset, the UK Met Office-University of East Anglia group carried out a sensitivity test (reported in Jones et al., 2012) in which the global analysis of land areas was re-run with all Australian data deleted. A comparison of Australian mean temperature from a range of different datasets—including local and international datasets (which use different methods of data selection, preparation and analysis) and both station-based and satellite data—is provided below (Figure 12). For example, imagine if a weather station in your suburb or town had to be moved because of a building development. Station details: ACORN-SAT Remote Australian Islands and Antarctica station catalogue. The locations are chosen to maximise the length of record and network coverage across the country. Hemispheric and large-scale land-surface temperature variations: an extensive revision and an update to 2010. To capture this process in a simple form, station weights ('footprints') for monthly maximum and minimum Australian average temperature are calculated as the fraction of the Australian land area which is closest to each station. Also summarised is the use of nearby sites to account for earlier sites moves in 1984 and 1971 for which no parallel observations were taken. The two datasets yield similar estimates for these national percentage areas, and consequently similar estimates of the trend behaviour—percentage areas above the 95th percentile have increased markedly in recent years (since around 1980 onwards). While the national analysis of temperature begins in 1910, the Bureau of Meteorology also holds temperature data from earlier periods. Figure 12: In reality, the raw data describe ‘as-read’ temperature readings from single stations across multiple sites, for varying timespans, and using multiple instruments over time. For ACORN-SAT, the Bureau has also worked to digitise more historical data (from old paper records) to incorporate into the analysis. 2009. Locations in regions with widely spaced observations (mostly remote areas) have a larger footprint in the analysis than locations in more densely observed areas. It should be noted that, in most cases where there are known undigitised daily data, the digitised monthly (monthly-mean) data for the period concerned are available through the Bureau’s website. The role of climatological normals in a changing climate. Australia experiences a wide range of temperatures and rainfall. 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