The Mystery of Egyptian Tomb KV55 in the Valley of the Kings. Everything about it indicates “human made.” It’s this kind of so called “research” that I deem JUNK science because that is exactly what this article is about...JUNK SCIENCE!! The cave is named after the Potok Farm in Podolševa. Researchers working at this site have uncovered more than 600 archaeological finds in at least ten levels, including 20 hearths with evidence of habitation by Neanderthals about 55,000 years ago. The cave has been nicknamed the "Serbian Atapuerca". Dr.Diedrich is an idiot. Organum added what to Gregorian chants? Here, we show the results of X‐ray computed micro‐tomography (mCT) performed on the Divje babe I ‘flute’. The early arrival and disappearance of Homo erectus and Homo heidelbergensis, the appearance, complete evolution and eventual demise of Homo neanderthalensis and the immigration and successful settlement of Homo sapiens all have taken place during the European Paleolithic. The Divje Babe flute, discovered in a cave in Slovenia in 1995, has long been heralded as the oldest musical instrument ever discovered. Credit: BoBo]. It is noted for its Paleolithic remains, including the worked bone of cave bear known as the Divje Babe Flute, which has been interpreted as a Neanderthal musical instrument. Wallin, Nils, Björn Merker, and Steven Brown, eds. " [26]. It has been suggested that it was made by Neanderthals as a form of musical instrument , its hole spacing and alignment leading to its being labeled a "Neanderthal flute." Fink, Bob, 2002-3, "The Neanderthal flute and origin of the scale: fang or flint? Excuse me but what kind of scientist just summarily dismisses all previous evidence because it does not support his/her little “pet theory”? The authors argue that the instrument encompassed a range of two and a half octaves, which can be extended to three octaves by overblowing. The Noisetier Cave, owing its popular name to the Hazel trees that grow in front of its entrance, is located in a mountainside 145 m (476 ft) atop the Vallée d'Aure in the Ardengost commune, Hautes-Pyrénées department in the region Occitania, southern France. Bone Flutes: (Form and Function:) Bone flutes are one of the oldest known deliberately made musical instruments. It was found near the Idrija region at the Divje Babe archeological site. The oldest flute ever discovered may be the so-called Divje Babe flute, found in the Slovenian cave Divje Babe I in 1995. The mammoth-ivory flutes would have been especially challenging to make. Divje Babe is the oldest known archaeological site in Slovenia. The figured ‘bone flutes’ of Divje Babe Cave 1, Mokriška Jama Cave and all other Slovenian ‘pseudo-bone flutes’ are housed in the National Museum in Ljubljana, Slovenia and Hungary (NMLS). The Neanderthal Flute, found in the cave of Divje Babe in Slovenia, is thought to date back at least 50,000 years, making it the oldest known musical instrument in the world. In a 2011 article, Matija Turk published the results of a collaboration with Ljuben Dimkaroski, an academic musician who had made replicas of the artifact. The Divje Babe archaeological site is located in a cave 230m above the Idrijca River, near Cerkno. The bone fragment is the diaphysis of the left femur of a one- to two-year-old cave bear and is 133.6 mm (5.26 in) long. Consequently, the first music may have been invented in Africa and then evolved to become a fundamental constituent of human life, using various different materials to make various instruments. Photo: UKOM archives 1 / 2. The natural shape of the chosen left thigh bone, its size and artificial redesign is ergonomically sound and adapted for a right-handed musician. Jump to navigation Jump to search. Using cave-bear bone accumulations to assess the Divje Babe I bone ‘flute’ - Volume 72 Issue 275 - Francesco D'Errico, Paola Villa, Ana C. Pinto Llona, Rosa Ruiz Idarraga Is this a 300 million-year-old screw or just a fossilized sea creature? A Middle Palaeolithic origin of music? [6] As such, it is possibly the world's oldest known musical instrument. November, 2003. This, along with the finding of a wide and deep combustion structure in the stratigraphic profile, support the hypothesis that at the time of the occupation of the site by humans there was processing and consumption of big mammals. The most significant finding was a small ivory statue called the Löwenmensch, which is one of the oldest pieces of figurative art ever found. Found by archeologist Ivan Turk in a Neanderthal campsite at Divje Babe in northwestern Slovenia, this instrument (above) is estimated to be over 43,000 years old and perhaps as much as 80,000 years old. [1] Despite alternative hypotheses suggesting it was formed by animals, [2] [3] [4] [5] the artifact remains on prominent public display in the National Museum of Slovenia in Ljubljana as a Neanderthal flute. The five-holed flute has a V-shaped mouthpiece and is made from a vulture wing bone. Discovered 1995-97, it is known also as the Neanderthal Flute. It is about 43,100 years old. Music is found in every known society, past and present, and is considered to be a cultural universal. Die größere der beiden Höhlen ist die archäologisch bedeutsame Divje babe I. Sie zählt neben Betalov spodmol und Potočka zijalka zu den wichtigsten steinzeitlichen Fundstellen Sloweniens. The spot is where sound best echoes. Gudi literally means "bone flute". A Neanderthal flute, at least 45,000 years old, found at the Divje babe archaeological site in 1995, is probably the oldest musical instrument in the world. Says Nowell, '[Turk's] willing to give it the benefit of the doubt, whereas we're not.' It is broken at both ends, with two complete holes and what may be the incomplete remains of one hole at each end, meaning that the bone may have had four or more holes before being damaged. Otherwise, it would be a darker colour than the surface of the bone, as we know from coloured marrow cavities of whole limb bones. Almost all prehistoric bone flutes come from a time in prehistory associated with post-Neanderthal activity, however the Divje Babe flute from Slovenia suggests both that Palaeolithic people were aware of music, but also that they used the same diatomic scale that we use today. It is possibly the world’s oldest known musical instrument, and some archeologists believe that Neanderthals made it. The Divje Babe flute, discovered in a cave in Slovenia in 1995, has long been heralded as the oldest musical instrument ever discovered. Divje Babe is a Karst cave and archaeological park overlooking the Idrijca River in Slovenia. Download Citation | The Mousterian Musical Instrument from the Divje babe I cave (Slovenia): Arguments on the Material Evidence for Neanderthal Musical Behaviour | In … The Jiahu gǔdí is the oldest known musical instrument from China, dating back to around 7000 BC. Together with religion and other cultural universals of contemporary human societies, the emergence of figurative art is a necessary attribute of full behavioral modernity. These days many people turn to their religious, scientific, or... For proof that the ney (also spelled nay) is one of the oldest musical instruments still in use, you need look no further than the great Sumerian city of Ur. It has been suggested that it was made by Neanderthals as a form of musical instrument, its hole spacing and alignment leading to its being labeled a "Neanderthal flute". Using ESR (Electron Spin Resonance) in the Mousterian Cave Deposits at Divje Babe I, Slovenia". At this now collapsed 35 m (115 ft) deep ancient karst cavity remarkably well preserved Neanderthal fossils were recovered, that might be skeletal remains of deliberate burials. The colour of the marrow cavity does not differ from the colour of the external surface of the bone. [26] (Fink had suggested there may have originally been a mouthpiece extension added to the bone before it was broken.). No match could be found to any known animals. Bob Fink claimed in his essay [27] in 1997, that the bone's holes were "consistent with four notes of the diatonic scale" (do, re, mi, fa) based on the spacing of those four holes. Our open community is dedicated to digging into the origins of our species on planet earth, and question wherever the discoveries might take us. Oldest Known Musical Instrument Plays Notes of Do, Re, Mi Scale. [2] They published photos of several bones with holes in them which had more or less circular holes similar to those found in the artifact, but they did not have a single bone coming even close to the linear alignment of Turk's holes. According to the current excavation team at the site, the correct name of the location is "Regourdou". [16] [17] Thus Ivan Turk has asserted that, whether the holes are "artificial" (made by man) or "natural" (punctures from a carnivore bite), origin is the "crucial question." can someone give this scientist bones gnawed by hyenas??? (in the volume Moussterian Bone Flute, p. 160) wrote that "the marrow cavity is basically cleaned of spongiose. The item is a fragment of the femur of a cave bear, which has been dated at 60,000-43,000 years old, which had been pierced with spaced holes. Furthermore, all are in the proper ratio of bore size to hole size found in most flutes, and the bone is the kind (femur) usually used for bone flutes. 150,000-Year-Old Pipes Baffle Scientists in China: Out of Place in Time? The Divje Babe bone's holes matched those spacings very closely to a series of note-holes in a minor scale. There is debate as to whether or not it is also the first example of a diatonic scale use. [11], Since World War II, like specimens have been found in Mokrica Cave (Slovene : Mokriška jama) and Betal Rock Shelter (Betalov spodmol). According to musicologist Bob Fink, the flute’s four finger holes match four notes of a diatonic (Do, Re, Mi…) scale. This was noted by Turk in his book and was also noted from the opposing hypothesis holders Nowell and Chase in their article in the August/October 1998 issue of Current Anthropology. The site contains lithic material of an Acheulean typology and dates to that from the Middle Pleistocene to the Upper Pleistocene. /Photo: Tomaž Lauko. During systematic excavations since 1992 Middle Paleolithic stone tools and artifacts attributed to the Neanderthal Mousterian culture were discovered among numerous faunal remains. [25]. The Divje Babe Flute is a cave bear femur pierced by spaced holes that was found in 1995 at the Divje Babe archeological park located near Cerkno in northwestern Slovenia.It has been suggested that it was made by Neanderthals as a form of musical instrument, its hole spacing and alignment leading to its being labeled a "Neanderthal flute. The location of the site is a horizontal cave, 45 metres (148 ft) long and up to 15 metres (49 ft) wide; it is 230 m (750 ft) above the Idrijca River, near Cerkno, and is accessible to visitors. Researchers in China have discovered six complete ancient flutes made of bone belonging to the Neolithic period carbon dated to about 9,000 years old. The Divje Babe Flute is a cave bear femur pierced by spaced holes that was found in 1995 at the Divje Babe archeological park located near Cerkno in northwestern Slovenia. Oase Cave material was studied in the Institute Emil Racovita, Romania (IR). The Divje Babe Flute is a cave bear femur pierced by spaced holes that was found in 1995 at the Divje Babe archeological park located near Cerkno in northwestern Slovenia. The item is a fragment of the femur of a cave bear which had been pierced with evenly-spaced and perfectly-formed holes, dated to between 60,000-43,000 years old. Prehistoric, or primitive, music comes from what type of cultures? 2000. [7], Divje Babe is the oldest known archaeological site in Slovenia. cause im pretty sure he haven't seen one. Archeologists have found the delicate... One of the ancient technologies that is often overlooked is the creation of musical instruments. They have been documented from 2.6 million years ago, but the most recent fossils come from around 29,000 years ago. Messiah on Temple Mount: Are We Nearing the End of Time? [22] Responding to the D'Errico carnivore-origin hypothesis, Turk pointed out that the features "common" between the carnivore-origin artifact and other chewed bones studied by D'Errico (see Hole shape below) do not include the alignment of the holes. In 2015 Cajus G. Diedrich suggested the holes could be explained by scavenging from spotted hyena. "Rezultati računalniške tomografije najstarejše domnevne piščali iz Divjih bab I (Slovenija): prispevek k teoriji luknjanja kosti", "Results of Computer Tomography of the Oldest Suspected Flute from Divje Babe I (Slovenia): Contribution to the Theory of Making Holes in Bones" (English & Slovenian). Music archaeology is an interdisciplinary study field that combines musicology and archaeology. This is just one more attempt to degrade our ancient human ancestors because, in fact, we are suppose to believe they were “bruts” and ignorant barbarians. Unfortunately, this ancient construction technique is disappearing. For some scientists, this conclusion was just too much to swallow. The cave is 45 meters (148 ft) … [20], French-based Italian taphonomist Francesco D'Errico, as well as Claus-Stephan Holdermann, Jordi Serangeli, Philip G. Chase, and April Nowell have all hypothesized its carnivore origin. Nowell wrote that holes in the specimen "were almost certainly made sequentially rather than simultaneously and that the distance between them has nothing to do with the distance between any two teeth in a wolf's jaw." The probability that four randomly placed holes would appear in line in a recognizable musical scale is very low according to an analysis made by Canadian musicologist Bob Fink in 2000. Turk, I., Pflaum, M. and Pekarovič, D., 2005. "Le Régourdou" is considered a misnomer and should be avoided. ", The National Museum of Slovenia argues that this evidence has "finally refuted hypotheses that the bone was perforated because of a bear bite". They have also found the skeletal remains of numerous cave bears. The distance between the centers of the holes is 35 mm (1.38 in). Neanderthals are an extinct species or subspecies of archaic humans who lived in Eurasia until about 40,000 years ago. The flutes, made of bone and ivory, represent the earliest known musical instruments and provide unmistakable evidence of prehistoric music. While first excavations were started after the second half of the 19th century, the significance of some of the findings was not realized until 1969. The artifact known as the Divje Babe flute, discovered in Slovenia in 1995, has been claimed as the oldest flute, though this has been disputed. For one thing, both ends had clearly been gnawed away by something, perhaps a wolf, seeking greasy marrow. Discovered in caves in southeast Europe, the “flutes” are thigh bones from juvenile cave bears with regular circular punctures that look like finger holes. But a devastating massacre left the city in ruins and, until recently, many locals refused to approach the ruins of Khara Khoto. Turns out its not a joke which is astounding to say the least. It served as a lair for cave bear during the last glaciation, but was also used by people - first Neanderthals and then Cro-Magnons. Megalithic Origins: Göbekli Tepe and Ancient Peru - The Same Architects? The Divje Babe flute was made from what material? The Faravahar is arguably the best-known symbol of the Persian Zoroastrian faith. For privacy reasons, she has previously written on Ancient Origins under the pen name April Holloway, but is now choosing to use her real name, Joanna Gillan. A second voice. If a match had been found, it could have been cited as prima facie evidence that the holes were animal-made. Brodar assumes these bones are still not recognized by the international research community due to the fact that most of them were found in France, and the Paleolithic is still considered to be the French's domain. There is geological, paleontological, and archaeological evidence indicating an intense and long-term occupation of this site. Yet, I highly suspect just the OPPOSITE is true! Dr Diedrich had dismissed all the research that has been conducted on flute bones so far. Ignoring the probability of the alignment of the holes, D'Errico's interpretation was that it was possible for the holes to have been made by an animal, and they concluded that of the available options this was the most likely. "Dr.Diedrich is an idiot. D'Errico insisted on ignoring the probability of the alignment of the holes and, even after having analyzed the artifact firsthand, claimed that "the presence of two or possibly three perforations on the suggested flute cannot therefore be considered as evidence of human manufacture, as this is a common feature in the studied sample." However, in recent years the consensus that the Divje Babe flute is an authentic musical instrument has been growing as the view of Neanderthals has changed from subhuman brutes to more sophisticated humans. "Neanderthal Man Moves Up the Evolutionary Scale", CS1 maint: multiple names: authors list (, "Neanderthal Flute – the Flute from Divje Babe", "Koščene piščali: pričetek slovenske, evropske in svetovne instrumentalne glasbene zgodovine", "Electron Spin Resonance (ESR) Dating in Karst Environments", https://web.archive.org/web/20071007183112/http://sciencenetlinks.org/sci_update.cfm?DocID=37, "Neandertalska piščal iz Divjih bab I: stara in nova spoznanja", "A Middle Palaeolithic origin of music? [21]. Prehistoric music is a term in the history of music for all music produced in preliterate cultures (prehistory), beginning somewhere in very late geological history. Slovenian archeologist Mitja Brodar, however, argues that it was made by Cro-Magnons as an element of Central European Aurignacian culture. It was discovered by archaeologists in a cave near the Idrijca River in 1995. Bones with holes such as those found in the Potok Cave have been ascribed to modern human Cro-Magnon, [12] and Mitja Brodar asserts that they are an element of the Central European Aurignacian. In essence, Fink said, they are like a simple fingerprint. It has been suggested that it was made by Neanderthals as a form of musical instrument, its hole spacing and alignment leading to its being labeled a "Neanderthal flute." This symbol consists of a winged disc with a man emerging from it. Its entrance was formed by the collapse of the 174 m (571 ft) long cave's ceiling, carved out by the waters of the Pivka River. The oldest musical instrument ever discovered is believed to be the Divje Babe flute, discovered in a cave in Slovenia in 1995, though this has been disputed. Summary of Turk's evidence", "Dating a Flautist? Music and sculpture as artistic expression have developed simultaneously among the first humans in Europe, as the region is considered a key area in which various cultural innovations have developed. This famous discovery happened in 1995, when during the excavations performed by Ivan Turk and Janez Dirjec from the Institute of Archaeology ZRC SAZU, the world’s oldest musical instrument was discovered in the Mousterian layer. Turk et al. “Hyenas left bones in repeating similar tooth mark and crush damage stages, demonstrating a butchering/bone cracking strategy,” Dr Diedrich wrote. Results of computer tomography of the oldest suspected flute from Divje babe I (Slovenia): Contribution to the theory of making holes in bones. Artifacts from the Middle and Upper Paleolithic periods were discovered since the archaeological excavations began in 2006. The seat of the municipality is the town of Idrija. The cave is located below the north-eastern edge of the Šebrelje plateau, with the entrance on a steep slope high above the Idrijca river. And while some people may seem content with the story as it stands, our view is that there exists countless mysteries, scientific anomalies and surprising artifacts that have yet to be discovered and explained. Because it has the characteristics of a flute, he dubbed it a Neanderthal flute. Turk conducted laboratory experiments which pierced holes in fresh bear bones in the manner of carnivore punctures, and in every case, the bones split. [9] According to the museum's statements, the presumed flute has been associated with the "end of the middle Pleistocene" and with Neanderthals, about 55,000 years ago. Arheološki vestnik 54, pp.67–72. [8] An equally critical issue is that, if the holes in this "flute" are of artificial origin, to date there does not seem to be any available means to determine whether they were deliberately drilled 43 thousand years ago, or are of a more contemporary origin (as part of an elaborate hoax, perhaps). 3 Problems to Remember When Trying to Find Atlantis, Bronze Age Death Rituals Included Curating Remains Of Predecessors, Sweet Ancient Melodies of the Ney: One of the Oldest Musical Instruments Still in Use, The Mystical Pentatonic Scale and Ancient Instruments, Part I: Bone Flutes. Yet in the Divje Babe instance, the bone did not break, a fact not matching expectations of carnivore action, as Turk's results showed. The manufacture by Neanderthals "is reliably proven" and its significance in the understanding of their capabilities and the development of music and speech is secure. Nevertheless, there still remains a minority of scientists who do not accept the possibility that Neanderthals were playing music and have claimed instead that the perfectly spaced and neatly carved holes are in fact the result of the bone fragment having been chewed on by an animal – a little hard to believe after watching this video showing the music produced by the reconstructed flute. The municipality is located in the traditional region of the Slovenian Littoral and is in the Gorizia Statistical Region. Divje babe II liegt wenige Gehminuten bergauf, in ihr wurden nach zwei Sondagen bislang keine weiteren … It was one of several similar instruments found in the area, with others dating back to 35,000 years ago and made from mammoth ivory. Neanderthals had culture so why would they not make such flutes? I believe it is D (I know for sure that it isn't C) Dorian mode begins on what note? 2011. Turk wrote, in his book and in his article in MIT's Origins of Music anthology, the bone shows no "counter-bites" that one would normally expect on the other side of the bone matching the immense pressure necessary for a bite to make the center holes. Archaeologists ask two key questions: Is it a flute? There is also no evidence that the two holes could have been bitten at the same time. The age of the relic radically suggested that Neanderthals were crafting flutes prior to the emergence of Homo sapiens in the region. This tag should be used on existing categories that are likely to be used by others, even though the "real" category is elsewhere. The maximum diameter of the two complete holes is 9.7 mm (0.38 in) and 9.0 mm (0.35 in). It is from a juvenile cave bear femur at the Divje Babe site, near a Mousterian hearth. In a paper published in the Royal Society of Open Science , Dr Cajus Diedrich from the Paleo-Logic Independent Institute of Geosciences took a look at several musical instruments that had been attributed to Neanderthals. Is the oldest undisputed examples of figurative art are known from Europe and from Sulawesi, Indonesia, dated 35,000! Middle Pleistocene to the emergence of Homo sapiens in the cave Divje Babe is a of... Was leading the Paleolithic period in Slovenia best-known symbol of the world ’ oldest! Tomb KV55 in the Hohle Fels cave dates back around 43,000 years essence, Fink,!, Slowenien and archaeology Turk 's evidence '', `` the marrow cavity is basically cleaned of spongiose Mount are... Archaeologists in a cave near Ulm in Germany believe it is southwest of Jelašnica and 20 km ( Mi... 2,300-Year-Old Fountain that was commissioned by King Philip II of Macedonia shape of the cave! 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